New book coming out in October 2018
Social Functions of Emotion and Talking About Emotion at Work
Despite how much we know about emotion, Social Functions of Emotion and Talking About Emotion at Work uniquely examines the utility of emotion in organizations against the ways in which both individuals and groups talk about them. Drawing on psychological and sociological research, this book provides groundbreaking insights for understanding how emotions are used in the workplace.
Bringing together contributions from leading emotion researchers, this book features chapters focusing on 10 emotions, ranging from awe to shame. Through its exploration of the ways each emotion functions in relation to how we talk about them, this book injects fresh theoretical and practical momentum into how our discussions of workplace emotion can affect how emotional events are appraised over time and place. This, in turn influences the causes, expressions, and consequences of emotions in the workplace.
With its novel approach, this book will be an invaluable tool for academics researching emotion, as well as postgraduate students working in the social sciences seeking reference material on emotion. HR managers and general readers seeking greater insight into emotions at work will also find this book to be a useful tool.
What others think about the book . . .
‘This is a very important book that helps to fill a serious gap in the OB/Organizational Psychology literature on emotions. The editors have assembled a stellar collection of contributors and each and every chapter is worth studying. As a whole, the volume points to the social functions of discrete emotions and the way those emotions are communicated in work settings. Beyond that, the theme of the collection reminds us that the appropriate unit of analysis for human behavior is always people actively engaging with the world, including the social world.’
– Howard M. Weiss, Georgia Institute of Psychology, US
‘Do emotions exist without words? Animals clearly feel and communicate emotions. But people, with their ability to speak, are much more eloquent in their emotions. People really “do” emotions, in large part, by talking about them. Work on emotional labor, in the 1980’s brought awareness of emotions as integral to organizational roles. This new set of essays, collected and edited by Dirk Lindebaum, Deanna Geddes and Peter Jordan, pushes forward the understanding that talking about emotion at work is integral to the social influence of emotion. Talking is integral to attributions and emotion regulation strategies of receivers (targets and observers) of anger expressions in the workplace. The discussed illegitimacy of talking about certain feelings – boredom, envy, fear, pride – means these feelings remain repressed and misreported. The essays are provocative, presenting functional and dysfunctional aspects to the norms of talking (or not talking) about emotional experiences. The book is stimulating in the discussion of emotions that are less obvious to organizational research, such as awe, boredom, and fear. And it provides new insights on more commonly discussed emotions, with a historical perspective on happiness and a functional analysis of sadness. Warmly recommended reading, as stimulation for new research, and as a window into one’s own emotional discourse, and its social implications.’
– Anat Rafaeli, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
‘Emotions are a powerful force in social and organizational life, not just through their effects on the self but also through their effects on others. Building on the fast-growing literature on the social effects of emotions, this book draws attention to the under-explored question of how the (dys)functionality of emotions in the workplace is shaped by how people think and talk about emotions. The diverse contributions collected in this volume illustrate the important notion that organizational norms and discourses profoundly influence the interpretation of emotion-eliciting events, emotional experience, emotion regulation, and the interpersonal dynamics of emotions at work. This original and intellectually stimulating book underlines the inherently social constitution of emotion and opens up important new avenues of research.’
– Gerben van Kleef, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Cardiff Business School (UK)
Fox School of Business, Temple University (USA)
Frank den Hond
Hanken School of Economics (Finland) &
VU Amsterdam (the Netherlands)
For Kant, Enlightenment refers to “man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity”, immaturity being defined as “the inability to use one’s own understanding without the guidance of another” (Kant, 1996: 58, italics added for emphasis). The emphasis in the preceding quote serves to problematize what the proposed sub-theme seeks to examine, namely, the relationship between an enlightened existence and freedom in the context of work in the 21st century. In other words, can there be freedom if individuals or groups cannot develop that understanding to ‘see through’ power relations (Connerton, 1976) without the guidance of others? To extend the question further, can there be freedom if others actively inhibit individuals or groups from developing their own understanding, or if individuals or groups are too afraid to develop it, when they ‘fear’ freedom (Fromm, 1941/2011)? An attempt to answer the question imposes the need to engage more closely with what freedom is, who defines it, and what the consequences of this are for those who define it, and for those who have their freedom defined by others.
For the proposed subtheme, we draw on the work of Isaiah Berlin (1969/1999) and his dual concepts of negative and positive freedom. Negative freedom, “the freedom which consists in not being prevented from choosing as I do by other men” (p. 23), implies the absence of obstacles or constraints, and involves a concern about how individuals suffer through state (or organisational) interference. Thus, it focuses on external factors that affect the autonomy of individuals and groups. Positive freedom, “the freedom which consists in being one’s own master” (p. 23), in turn, relates to the possibility of acting; taking control of one’s life and realising one’s goals and purposes. Although Berlin valued negative freedom more than positive freedom, these two concepts are not merely distinct for him; they are antithetical and represent incompatible interpretation of one single political ideal.
The dualism implied in Berlin’s works has several implications for organisational theory and practise. The dualistic assertion that it is either one or the other, while theoretically/ideologically neat, may be practically problematic. The reason for this is rooted in the fact that positive freedom is sometimes needed to challenge and break up immoral social orders that are sustained by self-interests of individual or groups at the expense of universal moral standards that serves the interest of society at large (see e.g., Henry Fonda in 12 Angry Men, Lindebaum and Gabriel, 2016). By contrast, limits to negative freedom are needed to curb excessive individual self-determination, especially in economic terms (Fleming, 2017), that may lead to collapse of the moral fabric of society, and by implication, any conception of the greater good that helps sustain society and organisations. What these observations afford is a push from the ideological and dualistic trenches on the topic of freedom, toward a recognition of the function (Wright, 1973) that each kind of freedom, in best dialect tradition, can exercise to both sustain and challenge organisation.
Berlin’s (1969/1999) work on freedom must be considered in light of an overarching ideological system governing contemporary work and organisation, namely, neoliberal capitalism. At its core, neoliberalism is a way of understanding the world that espouses positive freedom; a freedom, nonetheless, that manifests itself most distinctly in terms of (illusion of) consumption choices and the liberation of money and entrepreneurship from social contexts and obligations (Harvey, 2005). Despite its surface promise of individual freedom, neoliberalism in practice has fundamentally restricted human behavior and emotion and commodified social relations (Lindebaum, 2017). Thus, the free market ideology of neoliberalism does not appear to make workers free, in any sense. Instead, corporations have been described as a ‘private government’, tyrannizing workers into submission, especially those who are lower-skilled and easily replaced (Anderson, 2017). Workers’ employment relationships today are characterized by disempowerment, fear, and insecurity (Fleming, 2017). Even those fortunate enough to possess autonomy instead internalize the language, beliefs and values of employers and elites. That is, they willingly secure the clasp of the ‘invisible handcuffs’ (Perelman, 2011) and sacrifice themselves to the requisite discipline of the market.
It is against this background, and irrespective of theoretical or methodological traditions, that we invite submissions that address a range of indicative but not exhaustive questions:
Anderson E. (2017) Private Government How Employers Rule Our Lives (and Why We Don’t Talk about It), Princeton , NJ: Princeton University Press.
Berlin I. (1969/1999) Two Concepts of Liberty. In: Warburton N (ed) Philosophy” Basic Readings London: Routledge, 159-170.
Connerton P. (1976) Critical Sociology. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
Fleming P. (2017) The Human Capital Hoax: Work, Debt and Insecurity in the Era of Uberization. Organization Studies 38: 691-709.
Fromm E. (1941/2011) Escape from Freedom, New York: Ishi Press.
Harvey D. (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Holt R and den Hond F. (2013) Sapere Aude. Organization Studies 34: 1587-1600.
Kant I. (1996) An Answer to the Question: ‘What is Enlightenment?’. In: Schmidt J (ed) What Is Enlightenment? Eighteenth-Century Answers and Twentieth-Century Questions. Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 58-64.
Lindebaum D. (2017) Emancipation through Emotion Regulation at Work, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Lindebaum D and Gabriel Y. (2016) Anger and Organization Studies – From Social Disorder to Moral Order. Organization Studies 37: 903-918.
Perelman M. (2011) The invisible handcuffs of capitalism: How market tyranny stifles the economy by stunting workers, New York: Monthly Review Press.
Wright L. (1973) Functions. Philosophical Review 82: 139-168.
Dirk Lindebaum is a Professor in Organisation & Management at Cardiff Business School. His main preoccupation revolves around the mechanisms and tools that affect how freedom is experienced and exercised amongst individuals within and around organisations. This focus informed recent works on emotional emancipation at work and the performative implications of technology at work, especially in terms of organisational neuroscience. For further information, see www.dirklindebaum.EU.
Lynne Andersson received her PhD in organizational behavior/ social issues in management from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Her research focuses on the dark side of business organizations. In particular, she has been examining some social maladies that are arguably associated with late capitalism (e.g., corruption, cynicism, incivility, and detrimental philanthrocapitalism) as well as the role of social activism in countering capitalist barriers to sustainability.
Frank den Hond, PhD, is the Ehrnrooth Professor in Management and Organization at Hanken School of Economics (Finland) and past Editor of Organization Studies (2013-2017). His research interests are at the intersection of business in society, institutional organization theory, and social movement studies, and he recently developed interests in partial organization and business ethics.
NEW BOOK FORTHCOMING SPRING 2017 (published by Edward Elgar)
by Dirk Lindebaum
This book advocates the emancipation of emotion by enabling workers to regulate their emotions differently given emotional repression at work. Drawing on Critical Theory and Emotion Regulation, this book articulates two pathways to social control currently underexplored in management; one where the social functions of emotion are exploited, and one where the talk about emotion overrides its social function. While conducive to organizational control, workers may face adverse consequences as result of these pathways. The author illustrates the processes through which workers can start ‘seeing through’ the repression, and enlist specific emotion regulation strategies to emancipate themselves from it. Workers may use these strategies to buffer the adverse consequences of emotional repression in the short to medium-term. Yet, this book proposes that workers eventually may decide to change jobs in an attempt to remove themselves from the repression. If turnover frequency becomes unsustainable for organizations, it can potentially change the social structures that Critical Theory and its aim to emancipate is concerned with.
NOTE: I am grateful to Guy Farrow for his skill and creativity in producing the book cover. If anyone is interested in enlisting his work as illustrator, please do get in touch with him (gwilliamauthor.co.uk).
Together with Deanna Geddes from Temple University, we wrote an article in the Journal of Organizational Behavior, which conceptually defines and delineates “moral anger” from related but distinct constructs (e.g., righteous anger or indignation). The article is available as Open Access on the journal’s website.
Having defined “moral anger”, together with Yiannis Gabriel from Bath University, we wrote an ‘essay’ in Organization Studies, where we apply moral anger to the notion of disturbing (morally questionable) social orders. Once questionable social order (e.g., an ‘immoral’ and false consensus) is disrupted as a result of individuals acting on their moral anger, space is created for a re-emergence of a moral order upon which a re-negotiated social order can grow too. We use the jury drama 12 Angry Men to illustrate this point. In due course, the essay (as part of the new X and Organization Studies series) will appear as open-access on the journal’s website. For more details and the abstract, please follow the “publication” link in the main menu.
Both articles have been featured in recent issues of the Financial Times (see left), Daily Mail, and the Independent (see picture left and “News” section for more details).
Published only in September 2014, this special issue (co-edited with Peter Jordan from Griffith University) has been consistently ranked among the top-20 most-read articles in Human Relations of all times (i.e., 1947 – 2015). In fact, ALL articles of the special issue are in the top-100 of all-times most read articles in Human Relations. Below you can find the references:
Chi N-W and Ho T-R. (2014) Understanding when leader negative emotional expression enhances follower performance: The moderating roles of follower personality traits and perceived leader power. Human Relations 67: 1051-1072.
Hadley CN. (2014) Emotional roulette? Symmetrical and asymmetrical emotion regulation outcomes from coworker interactions about positive and negative work events. Human Relations 67: 1073-1094.
Lindebaum D and Jordan JP. (2014) When it can be good to feel bad and bad to feel good: Exploring asymmetries in workplace emotional outcomes. Human Relations 67: 1037-1050.
McMurray R and Ward J. (2014) ‘Why would you want to do that?’: Defining emotional dirty work. Human Relations 67: 1123-1143.
Mitchell R, Boyle B, Parker V, et al. (2014) Transformation through tension: The moderating impact of negative affect on transformational leadership in teams. Human Relations 67: 1095-1121.
Van Kleef GA. (2014) Understanding the Positive and Negative Effects of Emotional Expressions in Organizations: EASI Does It. Human Relations 67: 1145-1164.
33rd EGOS Colloquium, Copenhagen 2017
Copenhagen Business School (CBS)
DO ‘GOOD’ (OR ‘BAD’) EMOTIONS EQUATE TO ‘GOOD’ (OR ‘BAD’) ORGANIZATIONS?
Cardiff Busienss School
School of Management
University of Bath
Fox School of Business
The notion of the ‘good’ organization raises fundamental questions to theorists of organizational emotion. Is the ‘good organization’ and its corollary, the ‘bad organization’, an ideal type, an archetype or a fantasy? How is it constructed and what emotional processes underlie and/or support it? What, if any, means are enlisted to fulfil its realization? What outcomes does it generate?
These questions can be addressed from a multiplicity of angles. The proposed sub-theme provides a platform for scholars of organisational emotion to explore how emotion in general and specific emotions in particular (pride, love, loyalty, fear, anger, hate, envy and so forth) sustain, upend, challenge or help resurrect the idea of the ‘good organisation’. We are also interested in this connection with the role of different classes of emotion, such as moral emotions (e.g., guilt, shame or anger) or defensive emotions (e.g., pride, anxiety or disgust). What gives this subtheme its uniqueness is a keen focus on emotion in general and specific emotions in particular.
We conceive of the ‘good organisation’ holistically, but papers submitted to the sub-theme may approach the concept and the emotional scaffolding that sustains it differently. Both objectivist and subjectivist approaches are welcome. The former may place the good organization at the heart of legitimate, ethical, social, environmental, and economic concerns. A good organization is one that treats its employees, its customers, the environment and other stakeholders with consideration and respect. Economic success is balanced against environmental, social and other considerations. When these are properly integrated, the good organisation may claim to represent and further the ‘greater good’. Seen in this light, the topicality of the theme is underscored by the ongoing Volkswagen scandal in both the US and Europe.
At the same time, we also welcome perspectives and conceptualisations (e.g., social constructionist, psychodynamic, etc.), according to which any number of attributes, emotional, symbolic, instrumental and other may be attached to the good organization and its obverse, the bad organization. Instead of looking at the good organization as a realistic project or a desideratum, such approaches treat it as a fantasy or as a symbolic construct that takes the place of something else, for example, an idealized family or group. It may then be legitimately asked by contributors whether the ‘good’ organization potentially stands as a dysfunctional fantasy that actually obstructs the emergence of a ‘good enough organization’, by analogy to D W Winnicott’s (1964) idea of the ‘good enough mother’.
Accordingly, we invite contributions that, among other things, may focus upon the following:
Yiannis Gabriel is Professor of Organizational Theory and Deputy Dean of the School of Management, University of Bath, UK and Visiting Professor at the University of Lund, Sweden. He is well known for his work on organizational storytelling and narratives, psychoanalytic studies, leadership, management learning, the culture and politics of contemporary consumption, and the study of genocide from an organizational perspective. He is a member of the EGOS Board and has convened eight EGOS sub-themes in earlier colloquia.
Dirk Lindebaum is a Professor in Organisation & Management at Cardiff Business School. One stream of his research activities pertains to organizational phenomena that involve emotional processes broadly defined. Another stream that he has pursued of late concerns the increasing visibility of neuroscientific theories and methods in the study of organizational behaviour. He has earlier experience in convening EGOS sub-themes. Further details on publications, media engagement, online talks and other issues can be obtained from his website: www.dirklindebaum.eu.
Deanna Geddes is Associate Professor and Chair of the Human Resource Management Department at Temple University’s Fox School of Business and Management, USA. She has also served as Chair the Conflict Management Division of the Academy of Management. Her research interests include workplace anger and aggression, organizational emotions, and issues associated with providing effective performance feedback. She has earlier experience in convening EGOS sub-themes.
Ackroyd S and Thompson P (1999) Organizational misbehaviour, London: Sage.
Gabriel Y (2000) Storytelling in Organizations: Facts, Fictions, and Fantasies: Facts, Fictions, and Fantasies, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Lindebaum D and Gabriel Y (2016) Anger and Organization Studies – From social disorder to moral order. Organization Studies.
Lindebaum D and Geddes D (2015) The place and role of (moral) anger in organizational behavior studies. Journal of Organizational Behavior.
Winnicott, D W (1964). The child, the family and the outside world. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Dirk Lindebaum (Cardiff U.)
Deanna Geddes (Temple U.)
Yiannis Gabriel (U. of Bath)
This special issue, collectively available on the ‘online first’ section on the journal’s website, features a diverse range of contributions in terms of philosophical approaches, topics, methods, and geographical location. In combination, these articles enhance our understanding of how moral emotions (or their absence) impact upon ethical (or unethical) behaviour in organisations.
Moral Emotions and Ethics in Organisations: Introduction to the Special Issue (OPEN ACCESS)
The aim of our special issue is to deepen our understanding of the role moral emotions play in organisations as part of a wider discourse on organisational ethics and morality. Unethical workplace behaviours can have far-reaching consequences—job losses, risks to life and health, psychological damage to individuals and groups, social injustice and exploitation and even environmental devastation. Consequently, determining how and why ethical transgressions occur with surprising regularity, despite the inhibiting influence of moral emotions, has considerable theoretical and practical significance to management scholars and managers alike. In this introduction, we present some of the core arguments in the field; notably, the effect of organisational life and bureaucracy on emotions, in general, and moral emotions, in particular; the moral standing of leaders, managers and followers; moral challenges raised by obedience and resistance to organisational power and ethical blindspots induced by what may appear as deeply moral emotions. These issues are explored by a collection of geographically diverse articles in various work contexts, which are thematically organised in terms of (i) moral emotions, ethical behaviour and social pressure, (ii) moral emotions and their consequences within/across levels of analysis, (iii) psychoanalytic perspectives on the management of moral emotions, (iv) virtue and moral emotions and (v) moral emotions and action tendencies. We end by suggesting certain avenues for future research in the hope that the endeavour initiated here will inspire improved practice at work.
Schadenfreude: The (not so) Secret Joy of Another’s Misfortune
Despite growing interest in emotions, organizational scholars have largely ignored the moral emotion of schadenfreude, which refers to pleasure felt in response to another’s misfortune. As a socially undesirable emotion, it might be assumed that individuals would be hesitant to share their schadenfreude. In two experimental studies involving emotional responses to unethical behaviors, we find evidence to the contrary. Study 1 revealed that subjects experiencing schadenfreude were willing to share their feelings, especially if the misfortune was perceived to be deserved (i.e., resulting from unethical behaviors). Study 2 extends this work by incorporating schadenfreude targets of different status (CEO versus employee). Consistent with the “tall poppy syndrome,” subjects were more willing to share schadenfreude concerning high status targets than low status targets when the perceived severity of the target’s misconduct was low. This status effect disappeared at higher levels of perceived deservingness, however. Reported willingness to share schadenfreude was strongest at these levels but did not differ significantly between high and low status targets. These findings build on the social functional account of emotions, suggesting that sharing schadenfreude may signal normative cues to others regarding workplace behaviors that are deemed to be unethical.
The Exposed Self: A Multilevel Model of Shame and Ethical Behavior
Steven A. Murphy
In this article, we review the shame and ethical behavior literature in order to more fully develop theory and testable propositions for organizational scholars focusing on the behavioral implications of this ‘moral’ emotion. We propose a dual pathway multilevel model that incorporates complex relationships between felt and anticipatory shame processes and ethical behavior, both within and between persons and at the collective level. We propose a holistic treatment of shame that includes dispositional and organizational (contextual) influences on the cognitive and emotional forces that shape ethical behavior in organizations. The implications of our review of shame for ethical behavior, organizations, and concrete research action are discussed.
Nobody is as Blind as Those Who Cannot Bear to See: Psychoanalytic Perspectives on the Management of Emotions and Moral Blindness
J. J. de Klerk
Although apparently irrational, people with seemingly high moral standards routinely make immoral decisions or engage in morally questionable behavior. It appears as if under certain circumstances, people become in some enigmatic way blind to the immoral aspects of what they are doing or consequences of their immoral actions. This article focuses and reports on a psychoanalytic inquiry into the role of emotions and the unconscious management of unwanted emotions in promoting moral blindness. Emotions are essential to the conscience, self-sanctioning, and advancement of moral behavior. Notwithstanding moral ideations, a sufficiently strong counterwill may create incongruence between moral intentions and actual desires or behavior. The unwelcome experience of acute moral emotions such as guilt and anxiety is likely to activate a range of psychological defense mechanisms and unconscious processes to manage these emotions. It is argued that the management of these emotions through undue avoidance, inappropriate regulation, or lack of regulation, can bypass self-sanctioning. As result, the condition of moral blindness can develop or be sustained. The psychoanalytic explanations offered contribute to the understanding as to how emotions in combination with the unconscious mind can cause moral blindness in any person, notwithstanding high moral standards and good intentions. Improved understanding of moral blindness represents an important scientific step in improved understanding of our moral and immoral selves, with all its complexities, conflicts, and contradictions.
From Tell-Tale Signs to Irreconcilable Struggles: The Value of Emotion in Exploring the Ethical Dilemmas of Human Resource Professionals
This paper explores the character of emotion (felt and displayed) and its value in understanding ethical dilemmas in work organisations. Specifically, we examine the emotional labour of human resource professionals (HRPs). Through in-depth interviews and diary study, we uncover the emotional and ethical struggles of HRPs as they search for the ‘right thing to do’ in situated interaction. Through the lens of emotion, we chart the process of how the very framing of what is deemed ‘right’ can move from the social to the moral order (Bauman, Postmodern ethics, 1993) and vice versa. Based on our findings, we contribute to understanding the linkages between emotional and ethical dilemmas, and how expectations of multiple ‘others’ at the individual, interpersonal and organisational level shape and constrain ethical choices.
Justifying Deviant Behavior: The Role of Attributions and Moral Emotions
Mark J. Martinko
We present two studies investigating the impact of causal perceptions and the moral emotions of anger, shame, and guilt on the justification of deviant workplace behavior. Study 1 tests our conceptual framework using a sample of undergraduate business students; Study 2 examines a population of practicing physicians. Results varied significantly between the two samples, suggesting that individual and contextual factors play an important role in shaping the perceptual and emotional processes by which individuals form reactions to undesirable affective workplace events. Implications of these findings for the study of ethics, emotions, and attributions, as well as for promoting ethical behavior, are discussed.
Organizational Wrongs, Moral Anger and the Temporality of Crisis
By engaging with multiple narratives of a police killing involving questionable legal procedures, known as a police encounter in India, we attempt to narrate stories of what happens to those who resist organizational wrongdoing by displaying moral anger against unethical actions. The State enables police encounters to occur by arguing that exceptional and alternate methods are required to engage with the crisis of terror and crime that the nation faces. Thus, police encounters are executed in the name of the collective morality of the greater common good. Those who resist police encounters argue from the standpoint of a democratic morality by suggesting that the very efficacy of democratic institutions will be eroded if encounters are normalized. We explore questions of organizational ethics from a temporal perspective while navigating between contending moral positions regarding police encounters.
Exploring the Diversity of Virtues Through the Lens of Moral Imagination: A Qualitative Inquiry into Organizational Virtues in the Turkish Context
The purpose of this article is to introduce a multidimensional framework based on the concept of moral imagination for analysing and capturing diverse virtues in contemporary Turkish organizations. Based on qualitative interviews with 58 managers in Turkey, this article develops an inventory of Turkish organizational virtues each of which can be associated with a different form of virtuous organizing. The inventory consists of nine forms of moral imagination, which map the multitude of virtues and moral emotions in organizations. Nine emergent forms of moral imagination are based on: integrity, affection, diligence, inspiration, wisdom, trust, gratefulness, justice, and harmony. The findings have made a contribution to the expanding literature on how Islamic organizations develop their business ethics through a repertoire of virtues. An empirical account of the range of virtues in organizational contexts that have emerged as a result of the hybridization of Islamic virtue/aesthetics and neoliberal capitalism in contemporary Turkey is provided. A theoretical contribution is made to business ethics literature through a phenomenology of virtues that provides unique insights on diverse forms of moral imagination in contemporary Turkey where Islam and neoliberal capitalism dynamically co-exist.
Moral Emotions and Corporate Psychopathy: A Review
Benjamin R. Walker
Chris J. Jackson
While psychopathy research has been growing for decades, a relatively new area of research is corporate psychopathy. Corporate psychopaths are simply psychopaths working in organizational settings. They may be attracted to the financial, power, and status gains available in senior positions and can cause considerable damage within these roles from a manipulative interpersonal style to large-scale fraud. Based upon prior studies, we analyze psychopathy research pertaining to 23 moral emotions classified according to functional quality (positive vs. negative signal) and target (self vs. other). Based upon our review, we suggest that psychopaths are high in moral emotions associated with other-directed negative signals, low in self-directed negative signals, and low in other-directed positive signals. We found no empirical articles related to self-directed positive signals. This understanding of the specific moral emotion deficits of corporate psychopaths provides greater theoretical understanding and practical implications of knowing which individuals not to promote, though more research is needed on moral emotions that are faked for manipulative reasons.
The Online Unmanaged Organization: Control and Resistance in a Space with Blurred Boundaries
Tania Pereira Christopoulos
Mario Aquino Alves
The unmanaged organization (Gabriel in Organ Stud 16:477–501, 1995) is moving from coffee corners to social networks. This means not only a change of media, but also a transformation in how organizations exert control over workers and how workers resist the commodification of emotions (Fineman, in: Fineman, Emotion in organizations, Sage, London, 2000; Lindebaum in J Manag Inq 21:262–277, 2012). After analyzing instances of the online publication of images and texts that escape organizational control, we identified three main ambiguities helpful in framing future studies about organizational control and resistance: ambiguity between private and public spheres, ambiguity between spontaneous and performed manifestations, and ambiguity between the distribution and control of power. Our main contribution is to understanding the Internet, particularly social networks, as a medium for employee resistance through distance (Collinson, in: Jermier et al., Resistance and power in organizations, Routledge, London, 1994), and in using the three aforementioned ambiguities to help analyze this phenomenon.